EBO Background Paper No 4 – All-inclusiveness in an ethnic context

After what had been recognised as successful talks in July that brought the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) closer to fruition only three points remained to be addressed before a binding agreement could be signed. Perhaps crucially the most important for all concerned parties were which groups are to be included in the signing of the NCA. This has become a particularly difficult point to address as the Government and the armed ethnic group leaders have differing views as to the validity of those groups that can be a part of the process at the initial ceasefire stage.

There are six groups that are a major concern during these talks, each groups has a different background, a different goal, and different claims as to why they deserve to participate in what is ostensibly an agreement not to militarily engage the government’s armed forces. [Download]

EBO Background Paper – Conflict over Taxation in Karen State

On 2 July 2015, fighting broke out in Kayin State along a newly constructed area of the Asia Highway that links Pang Kan village with Myanmar’s Kawkareik Township.

The fighting between the Myanmar Army and the Kloh Htoo Wah Tactical Unit of the Democratic Karen Benevolent Army (DKBA), also known as the Klo Htoo Baw Kayin Organisation (KKO), not only highlights the continued taxation of the local population by the myriad small KNU splinter factions in Kayin State, but also the problems affecting the Karen National Union should a ceasefire occur.

Initial fighting, between Myanmar Army Infantry Battalion 231 under Military Operation Command 12 and soldiers from the DKBA Klo Htoo Wah Tactical Unit under the command of Brigadier General Kyaw Thet, resulted in at least two Myanmar soldiers killed and one injured while three members of the Klo Htoo Wah Tactical Unit were also reported wounded. [Download]